Paris climate agreement, reached up! So what? So this is just the beginning, not the first one we see, but there are elements to hopefully be more beginning than the other beginnings we witnessed with bated breath which then turned into a sigh. Of disappointment. Let's see what elements ofParis climate agreement they can lead us to cautious optimism. And which less.
Reached a few minutes before 19.30 on 12 December, after 12 days of intense work and many previous works, theParis climate agreement first of all, it foresees that the temperature increase is kept within 2 ° and can boast a global consensus. Discounted?
Not at all, and precisely in this global, adjective that we often "stick" terrified to "warming" this time has a positive meaning. Finally, and contrary to what happened six years ago in Copenhagen, theParis climate agreement you can be delighted to have taken the okay of the whole world, including the four biggest polluters. The promise to cut emissions, Paris has also snatched from China, India and the United States as well as Europe. A great achievement of 2015.
L'Paris climate agreement is based on the principle that "climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet" and precisely starting from this indisputable reality that the Conference ended less than a month ago requires "the utmost cooperation of all countries ”to“ accelerate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions ”. It is a globally recognized urgency.
Delegations from 196 countries sat down at the Parisian table and in the end, fitting and smoothing out the needs of each one, an agreement was reached, announced by a comoved president of the Conference - and French Foreign Minister - Laurent Fabius. "The Paris climate agreement has been adopted," he said.
Furthermore, as we said before, this is the beginning, because what has been decided must enter into force in 2020 and for this to be really imposed on those who signed it, there is a need for the okay of at least 55 countries that represent a total of 55% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.
Paris climate agreement: the steps forward
In theParis climate agreement a step forward is 2, 2 of the degrees of maximum temperature increase, and 2 is the limit from which you want to be "well below" aiming at + 1.5 °. For this to happen, emissions need to drop significantly from 2020.
Another nice step forward already mentioned, made in Paris, is the obtaining of the global consensus which makes the decision much more precious because it is shared. Shared not by a few more countries but by those that weigh the most in the global balance of emissions.
Each country is in different situations, both for the contribution in emissions and for the price paid in the context of the worsening of the global climate. There have been those who are more exposed, often those who are already poorer for other reasons. For them theParis climate agreement has provided for a mechanism of refunds to offset the financial losses caused by climate change.
Speaking of funds, there will be funds also for clean energy and those countries of old industrialization will provide them. The Paris climate agreement speaks of 100 billion a year. For what? Enabling green technologies and the decarbonization of the economy can be practices spread all over the world. It is starting from 2020 but in 2025 a new financial goal must already be set. Private individuals can also be included in this framework of funds for clean energy.
Before this 2025 review, there is another appointment for 2018, relating to controls. Based on the text ofParis climate agreement in fact, checks are mandatory every 5 years to review the objectives, with an initial syncope that brings the first appointment in 2018, therefore in 3 years. And from there it proceeds regularly, then in 2023 and so on. Obviously the revision must be ameliorative, no step back is allowed.
Paris climate agreement: the criticisms
Scientists and experts, environmentalists and protesters, have spared no criticism of the results achieved in recent days with theParis climate agreement. Rightly or wrongly, they have in any case placed emphasis on aspects that can be improved or otherwise evaluated in a constructive way.
The syndrome of "procrastination"Also hangs over this agreement: there are those who argue that this 2018 starting point for the revision of the objectives of each country is too close to 2020 and that if in the meantime we continue as if nothing had happened, the results of 2020 could be compromised . The scream is: "we don't make it in time", A sign that the urgency is well felt by the scientific community or at least by a substantial part of it.
Also missing is a date forzeroing of emissions, a bit like an "end of sentence never". And the penalty is the use of fossil energy sources that seem to survive while environmentalists wanted to obtain - 70% of them by 2050 and zero emissions, on the non-green side, in the following period. In theParis climate agreement, we do not speak clearly and with a date, of resetting. For many it is a victory for oil producers.
If that of the controls is considered a good victory, it is the fact that they will be spoiling the party self-certified. It was the emerging countries that insisted on this key, while the more industrialized ones aimed at international organizations that carried out a guarantee role on whether each country respected its emissions quotas.
China was the leader of this battle, won. One of the many consequences of this sort of autonomy is what will happen after theParis climate agreement for aircraft and ships. Nothing. Yes, because in flights deemed international, who are the emissions? Nobody wants to count them so it ends up with the fact that the exhaust gases of aircraft and ships are not controlled by anyone.
Copenhagen climate agreement
Criticism and progress, but let's look for a moment at whatParis climate agreement is with respect to what was decided on Copenhagen conference held in 2009. About 200 countries had come together with the goal of limiting the increase in global temperature compared to the values of the pre-industrial era. What is different? That a figure was missing was not a quantified intention, and putting concrete numbers and limits is important.
As important as the "global" consensus of Paris is, which in Copenhagen had failed. Six years ago, in fact, in Denmark we were stuck with great bitterness on this point. Paris andParis climate agreement they see the polluting countries more aware and more participatory and proactive. It is still all to see, there is so much to do, but at least on paper we can write the global word. With some hopeful satisfaction.
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