If the building is not properly insulated, they are created thermal bridges, those structural points of the building where thermal conditions different from those of the surrounding areas occur: this difference affects the trend of heat and thermal exchange fields. THE thermal bridges are formed when there is discontinuity between the materials that make up the structure: at the points of contact between the reinforced concrete and the masonry, between the masonry and the fixtures, or between the insulating envelope that covers the building and the fixing points of various elements. The appearance of the thermal bridges it causes the formation of condensation and mold as well as an overall reduction of the insulating power, negatively affecting an insulation system. THE thermal bridges should not be underestimated, as they represent today one of the most serious problems for the energy efficiency of a building.
Thermal bridges, solutions
It is not always possible to delete the thermal bridges but there are a series of more or less complex remedies capable of attenuating its effects.
In this regard, we can resort to the application of an ad hoc insulator on the walls concerned: we will have a reduction in heat losses and surface condensation that often forms.
Another solution is the application of external insulation which consists in fixing a series of insulating panels to the external walls of the building, using both special adhesives and anchors. Once the panels have been laid, they are smoothed and finished with the reinforcement mesh and then finished with the chosen finishing layer.
Then there is a more invasive intervention and consists in the demolition of the building part that acts as a thermal bridge with consequent reconstruction.
If the thermal bridge is attributable to the doors and windows, solutions can be adopted which consist in fixing heat-insulating glass, even supported by doors and windows and structures with low thermal conductivity. In the case of low-level thermal bridges, even just the insertion of suitable gaskets can be decisive.
Thermal bridges generated by window sills
There are products specifically designed to solve the problem of the thermal bridge generated by passing windowsills. In fact, fittings for window sills are sold on the market made of rigid EPS polystyrene foam. In this way, we will also solve the problem related to infiltrations, since they are waterproof materials to driving rain.