How to choose the heat pump: guidelines for choosing the heat pump best suited to your needs, from sizing to type.
Types of heat pumps
There are several types of heat pumps. A first classification of heat pumps it is made according to the heat source used: air, water or earth. In summary there are three types of heat pumps:
- Air-water heat pump
- Ground-water heat pump
- Water-to-water heat pump
Those who are planning a new home, in theory, can choose the heat source they prefer, even the most complex technology land-water.
Many more constraints have those who are considering the purchase of one heat pump to be installed in an existing home.
There are incentives for those who decide to install heat pumps. Let's talk about the restructuring bonus and the thermal account.
Heat pump air conditioner
As seen, with the termheat pumpvarious systems dedicated to domestic heating and cooling are indicated.
With the termheat pump air conditionerspecific reference is made to the systems ofair-water heat pump.
Theheat pump air conditionersees aoperationsimple: it does nothing but"Capture the temperature"from the air and transfer it to the water that flows in the circuit.
Theheat pump air conditionerit consists of an internal unit (split) and an external unit which represents the real beating heart.
Unlike the classicconditioner, that aheat pumpit has the advantage of working well even in sub-zero temperatures. The yield, however, decreases with very low temperatures. Theheat pump air conditionerit can be used for domestic heating when the outside temperatures are between 0 and 10 ° C. In Northern Italy, where temperatures are colder, it is not advisable to heat the house withheat pump air conditioner.
Heat pump, advantages
Theheatingand home cooling are two sore points that weigh heavily on the bill. The classic energy sources, gas and electricity, are expensive and expensiveheat pumpsrepresent a valid alternative.
Theheat pumpsthey can effectively solve the problem of winter heating and summer cooling. In addition, the cutting-edge models are able toproduce domestic hot waterso you can completely supplant oneboiler.
Maintenance and management costs are lower than those associated with running a boiler.
Theair conditioning system with heat pumpit is suitable both for low or medium temperature radiators and for radiant panels as in the case ofunderfloor heating.
Those who do not want to face a building renovation can install a heat pump air conditioning system using radiators (high temperature heating).
Heat pump, which energy source to choose
Who has a vegetable garden or a small garden, can evaluate the possibility of installing a geothermal collector, that is, a system capable of exploiting the subsoil as a source of heat. Alternatively, it is possible to adopt a system for the well, in the case of heat pumps that use water as a heat source.
Not all garden houses can install one geothermal heat pump or water, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of the heat source and the installation conditions in order to also evaluate the economic feasibility.
The only one heat pump that can be installed by everyone is the one that uses the air. The air is available to everyone and for install a heat pump that uses this heat source, no authorization is required. The geothermal or water heat pumps, require higher installation costs, so air heat pumps are generally also the cheapest choice.
How to choose the power of a heat pump
Once the type of heat pump has been identified, it will then be essential to understand the appropriate "power".
In the article How to choose the power of a boiler we have already introduced this topic and the selection criteria are roughly similar.
Once you have identified the heat source you want to exploit, you must make the necessary assessments to perform the correct sizing of the heat pump. To do this, you will need to understand the necessary heat requirements of your building. For further information:Choose the power of a heat pump.
COP and SCOP, two abbreviations for comparing devices
For theheat pump, at the time of purchase, two factors must be considered: the COP coefficient and the SCOP (or SPF) coefficient. The COP coefficient is the ratio of energy used to energy yield. It is therefore calledCoefficient of yield(COP stands for Coefficient of Performance).
How to interpret this data? Let's take the case of a heat pump that absorbs 1kW of energy and supplies 4 to the heating system. In this case the heat output is 4 and the COP is in fact 4.
This value should not be read as absolutistic but it is a useful parameter to compare the performance of different devices.
The abbreviation SCOP or SPF is a seasonal performance parameter. The COP yield, as stated, is a very approximate value. The SPF value, on the other hand, takes into account the climatic conditions in which theheat pump, i.e. the climatic zone.
Heat pump, installation and costs
Among the first factors to be assessed are certainly icosts. The Terra water system requires a very expensive and invasive installation, while theair-waterprovides affordable installation costs. The installation of an air-water heat pump is comparable to that of the classicsconditioners.
Also therewater-water heat pumpsees high installation costs. In addition, this system is not suitable for areas without aquifers.
The decision whether to opt for one air heat pump, with geothermal collector, with a geothermal heat probe or even water (with well), should be taken according to the initial investment to be made and the operating costs.
To start, in addition to the price for the heat pump it will be necessary to cover the investment for the installation. The user must also keep in mind the operating costs that are closely related to the type of heat pump, the average temperature of the heat source used, the delivery temperature of the heating and the ambient temperatures. The greatest operating costs are those related to air-water heat pump.